ISSN 2285-6064, ISSN CD-ROM 2285-6072, ISSN-L 2285-6064, Online ISSN 2393-5138
 

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Zamfir PANTER, Gabriela ROSU, Florentina MATEI

The study aimed to establish the optimum conditions for biological treatment of the leachate from the Glina household waste disposal site. The variation in nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, ammonium and suspended matter content in relation to contact time between microorganisms and leachate was analyzed to highlight the activity of microorganisms at different contact times. Experimental results have shown that the highest efficiency in the removal of nitrates and nitrites corresponds to the contact range of 16-24 hours, while the degradation efficiency is very low for contact time below 8 hours. The higher content of leachate suspensions was recorded over 5 days of contact, after which a continuous decrease was achieved by the end of the experiment. Positive inflection on biological purification by lowering the content of ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen content and biochemical oxygen content between 16 and 32% after 20 hours of contact time.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation Earth Observation & Surveying, Environment Engineering, Vol. I
Written by Gabriela-Mariana STOICA, Ionel JINGA, Ion STERE, Ioana STERE, Vasile STOICA, Viorel DINCĂ ,Vasilică-Irinel HOARCĂ

Aim of the study: The response of some sunflower hybrids in low water-supply conditions. The central part of Dobrogea is chiefly characterized by a warm and droughty climate, with the medium annual temperature of 11ºC and medium annual rainfall of 432,2 mm, which are irregularly distributed during the whole year and therefore for the sunflower crop there isn’t ensured a comfortable humidity regime for a normal development of plants. A decreased sunflower yield is drastic if there is an intervining of the hidric shortage. Taking into consideration the importance of the usage of some drought and torridity resistant genotypes, the work aims to find the most adequate germoplasm for obtaining some profitable crops in low water- supply conditions in the central Dobrogea Plateau. The methods used: The sunflower trial was located at S.C.D.A Valu lui Traian, Constanta County in 2011; bifactorial type it was used the randomized blocks method, with the follwing factors and graduations: A Factor: Water- supply level (A1 unirrigated; A2 – irrigated with pedological norm of 700 m3/ ha; A3- irrigated with 50% reduced pedological norm = 350 m3/ ha;B Factor: The hybrid (FAVORIT, SINGI, DELFI, PR64A89, TEKNY, KONDI). Results: 2011 proved to be a favourable one for the sunflower crop.The obtained yield while using the sunflower hybrids was influenced by the water – supply level, the average being 42,0 q /ha in unirrigated conditions, 50,4 q/ha taking into account the pedological norm of 700 m3/ha and 45,7 q /ha, with50% reduced the pedological norm. Conclusions: The classification of hybrids after the obtained yield in different water- supply conditions is: Singi, Kondi, Tekny, Favorit, Delfi and PR 64A89. The average seed- weight per head, 1000 – seed weight and the hectolitric mass varied in terms of the hybrid and the water- supply level.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Luminita-Georgeta POPESCU, Roxana-Gabriela POPA, Emil-Catalin SCHIOPU

The paper aimed to present the impact of thermal power plant from Oltenia Mining Basin and the same time to present some possibilities of valorization of the ash and slag that results from coal (lignite) burning in the large boiler of this thermal power point. The energy production in thermal power plant involves burning of huge amount of coal - lignite. Due to high ash content of lignite, the electricity production in thermal power plants generates significant amounts of slag and ash, which are stored in large deposit that involves the coverage of large areas of land generating environmental impact by air, water, and soil pollution. The reuse of ash and slag as raw material for other industry represent an economic way to reduce the environmental impact and represents an important way to preservation of natural resources.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation Earth Observation & Surveying, Environment Engineering, Vol. I
Written by Bogdan BURADA, Doru MIHA, Radu MUDURA, Ovidiu ŢENTEA, M. BREAZU, B. VENEDICT

The paper aims to present the early stages in the implementation of a Geographic Information System in the field of archaeology and its advantages. This field uses the spatial information in the required activities, whether in research or management. The chosen area of study is located in the West part of Galați City. We used as support data the orthophotoplans of that area, produced by National Agency for Cadastre and Land Registration, a topographical map produced by D.T.M, sets of photographs of archaeological sites in the area, taken from the helicopter and a LiDAR dataset for the archaeological site from “Bărboși”.I wanted to highlight the placement of these objectives in the area of study and to present the potential that LiDAR technology has in archaeology. For this I drew up a situation plan based on the digitised data, I realised a Digital Terrain Model using contours and points of known elevation from the topographic map. I generated a Digital Terrain Model based on LiDAR data, for archaeological site from “Bărboși” and I showed a few of the analysis possibilities on the basis of this model.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Orhan A. ATAY, Kamil EKİNCİ, Hüseyin KAÇAR, Serdar ÜÇOK, Barbaros S. KUMBUL

Densification of biomass materials can be achieved through pelletization technology, which can be used to produce useful, high value added, and salable pellets. In this study, pellets were made using peach pit (PP) with Lignite Coal Dust - coal powder (CP) at specific ratios. Pelletization was performed by a pelletizing machine having flat die and roller with a capacity of 50-60 kg/h. The pellet die had an inlet hole diameter of 11 mm, an outlet hole diameter of 7 mm and a die height of 25 mm. The pellets were the mixture of PP and CP: 100% CP, 90%CP+10%PP, 75%CP+25%PP, 50%CP+50%PP, 25%CP+75%PP, 10%CP+90%PP, and 100%PP as dry weight basis. Proximate analyses and higher heating values of the pellets were determined. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis were performed. The results were presented in the study.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Sebastian Cristian Radu PLUGARU, Viorel DAN, Xenia Paula MENTIU

A number of different physicochemical and biological processes are commonly used to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater before being discharged into the environment. Conventional physicochemical methods, such as electrochemical treatment, ion exchange, precipitation, osmosis, evaporation, are not cost-effective and some of them are not environmentally friendly. On the other hand, bioremediation processes show promising results for metal removal, even when they are present in very low concentrations if the physicochemical elimination methods fail to function. Moreover, this is a cross-compatible and economically feasible option. The bioremediation strategy is based on the high metal binding capacity of biological agents, which can remove heavy metals from contaminated sites with high efficiency. In this sense, micro-organisms can be considered as a biological tool for metal removal as they can be used to concentrate, remove and recover heavy metals from contaminated aquatic environments.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Constanta BORONEANT, Dan BALTEANU, Monica DUMITRASCU, Diana DOGARU

The Romanian Plain, covering a surface area of about 52 600 sq.km and stretching along the Danube, is one of the largest agricultural regions in the European Union. It presents diverse ecological conditions in four major zonal units, steppe, silvo-steppe, forest zone and its large Danube floodplain. In this context, the assessments of climate change, specifically of those climatic elements like temperature and precipitation which may have an important impact on various economic sectors, represent a necessary scientific support for end-users to envisage sustainable development strategies. This paper presents 1) the evaluation of the regional climatic model RCA4 driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and five general climatic models under historical forcing, 2) the adjustment of the bias identified in the simulations compared to the observation data using the Delta Change method, and 3) the projected changes of seasonal mean temperature and precipitation in the Romanian Plain for the mid-term period 2021-2050 under the RCP4.5 scenario compared with the reference period 1971-2000 of ROCADA observations.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Wolfram MAUSER, Tobias HANK, Tom JAKSZTAT, Elisabeth PROBST

Virtual Water Values (ViWA) is an interdisciplinary research project of geographers, remote sensing scientists, agroeconomists, computer scientists and landscape planners. It aims at supporting the implementation of water and food related SDGs by first developing a global, high resolution monitoring system for agricultural yields, water use efficiency and actual virtual water contents of agricultural products based on COPERNICUS Sentinel-2 time series. This data is used as input to GCE simulations of global agricultural trade and to identify global hot-spots of unsustainable (inefficient) water use and trade (both green and blue) by agriculture. Scenarios of trade incentives and regulations will be analyzed for their potentials and effectiveness to improve the sustainability of global agricultural water use. The Danube river basin is one regional case study of ViWA. Here the role of irrigation water use as well as upstream-downstream water conflicts is studied. First results of the continental and regional monitoring and simulations of actual yields, water use efficiencies and virtual water contents are shown and discussed.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Stefania CHIRICA, Mihail LUCA, Iustina LATES, Alexandru-Lucian LUCA

Water losses are water supply systems performance indicators whose values have been rising in recent years. The paper presents an analysis of the „water loss" phenomenon in Iasi County and City, highlighting the exaggerated values in some territorial areas. The case study has made a correlation between the amount of water lost and the groundwater available in the county. The research conducted has highlighted the drastic decrease of available water volumes, simultaneously with an increase in water consumption. The available water resources in Iasi County are around 106.00 million m3 and the water demand is about 31% higher. The paper shows that water losses in transport and distribution networks must be drastically reduced to about 15-25%. At the same time, it is necessary to re-evaluate the water demand and to preserve the existing water sources at optimal quality parameters.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. VII
Written by Elisabeth PROBST, Philipp KLUG, Wolfram MAUSER, Diana DOGARU, Tobias HANK

The Romanian Plain is dominated by intensively used, fertile cropland with large agricultural potentials. Nutrient supply and water availability are major determinants of crop yields. Achievable yield is strongly influenced by fertilization and irrigation - depending on the local conditions. Increasing water use efficiency (WUE) is an important objective for distributing the limited water for irrigation. We present a study which determines scenario-based yields and WUE of winter wheat and maize throughout the Romanian Plain (2015–2017). The study compares results of the biophysical crop growth model PROMET with data on actual plant development derived from Sentinel-2 time series. Actual crop yields and WUE are compared to their potentials which are determined by assuming optimal fertilization for both rainfed and optimal irrigated agriculture. The winter wheat simulations show that, under rain-fed conditions, optimal fertilization can more than double yields and maximize WUE, whereas irrigation hardly affects yield. Since maize is more affected by water stress in the Romanian Plain, optimal fertilization can double maize yields and maximize WUE under irrigation only.

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