ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF FISH SPECIES FROM THE GILORT RIVER PROTECTED AREA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Irina-Ramona PECINGINA, Roxana-Gabriela POPA

The paper aimed to present the state of conservation of the fish species of community interest (Eudontomyzon mariae, Gobio albipinnatus, Barbus meridionalis, Sabanejewia aurata) in the protected area. For evaluating the conservation status of fish species have been carried out land evaluation in May - October 2014 with a frequency of 3-4 observations per month. Following the site assessments in the Natura 2000 Gilort River area, it was observed that the conservation status of the species Eudontomyzon mariae population is medium to low, highlighting a reduction in population (21 specimens); the conservation status of the species Gobio albipinnatus population is medium to low, highlighting a reduction in population (16 specimens); the conservation status of the species Barbus meridionalis population is good, the population being stable (744 specimens); the conservation status of the species Sabanejewia aurata population is medium to low, highlighting a reduction in population (240 specimens).

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Irina-Ramona PECINGINA, Roxana-Gabriela POPA 2017, ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF FISH SPECIES FROM THE GILORT RIVER PROTECTED AREA. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 45-50.

ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION WATER REGIME ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Sema KALE ÇELİK, Sevinc MADENOĞLU, Bulent SONMEZ, Kadri AVAG, Ufuk TURKER, Gokhan CAYCI, Cihat KUTUK, Lee HENG

This study was carried on to determine the effect of different irrigation regime on winter wheat crop and water-use efficiency (WUE). For this purposes the experiment was conducted with 4 different irrigation treatment which was I1; Rainfed, I2; Full irrigation (irrigate when calculated soil water depletion is 60 mm) I3; Limited irrigation (2 irrigation maximum) one at tillering and another at grain filling, I4; No irrigation after establishment until heading, after which irrigation when soil water depletion is 60 mm below field capacity at Saraykoy Research Station in Murted Basin. The experimental design was completely randomized block design with four replications. Soil moisture was measured with neutron probe. At the end of the research study conducted during the wheat growth period for the years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, in average wheat yield was found to be 3.35 t ha-1, 4.54 t ha-1, 4.22 t ha-1and 4.31 t ha-1respectively according to the plots (I1, I2, I3, I4). The highest yield was obtained from the full-irrigation plot while the lowest yield was obtained from the no-irrigation plot. No statistically significant difference was found between the plots subjected to the irrigation treatments while a difference of P < 0.05 was obtained between the no-irrigation and full-irrigation plots. Average harvest index values were found to be respectively 29%, 31%, 32%, 31% and 32% again according to the plots. A significant negative correlation was found between grain yield, total harvested biomass and the WUE. The results presented in this work suggest that the amount of soil water content affects grain yield and water use efficiency. It might be recommended that irrigation concentrated in the after heading period increase WUE in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Crop water stress index is a useful tool for detecting crop water stress.

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Sema KALE ÇELİK, Sevinc MADENOĞLU, Bulent SONMEZ, Kadri AVAG, Ufuk TURKER, Gokhan CAYCI, Cihat KUTUK, Lee HENG 2017, ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION WATER REGIME ON WINTER WHEAT YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 93-97.

BENCHMARKING PERFORMANCE OF LARGE SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEMES WITH COMPARATIVE INDICATORS IN TURKEY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Hasan DEĞİRMENCİ, Çağatay TANRIVERDİ, Fırat ARSLAN, Engin GÖNEN

Irrigation management is one of the key factors for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. There has been a good number of performance indicators developed for the assessment of irrigation schemes. DSI (State Hydraulic Works) datas for 5 years (2011-2014) were used to calculate indicators of irrigated agricultural output. The most important one among them is the four basic comparative performance indicators related output to unit land and water. These “external” indicators provide the basis for comparison of irrigated agriculture performance. Comparative indicators are the output per cropped area ($/ha), output per unit command ($/ha), output per unit irrigation supply ($/m3), and output per unit water consumed ($/m3). In this paper, obtained the data that regarding irrigated cropped area, production, which are the output of the irrigated area in terms of gross or net value of production measured at local prices, command area, diverted irrigation supply, volume of water consumed by ET. This data were used to calculate comparative indicators. This study, in three climatic zones (Continental, Mediterranean and Black Sea) fourteen irrigation schemes, more than 20.000 ha of command area for each scheme, were assessed. Irrigation schemes were classified with regard to crop pattern. As a result of the study, based on the 2011-2014 years output per unit command area, output per cropped irrigated area, output per unit irrigation supply, output per unit water consumed were determined as 1040-7669 US$/ha, 2387-10129 US$/ha, 0.13-1.38 US$/m3, and 0.60-2.29 US$/m3, respectively. Calculated comparative indicators compared with each irrigation scheme`s crop pattern and climatic zone. In addition, results compared with irrigation schemes in similar climatic zone with similar crop pattern. In conclusion, it was determined that crop pattern is the most effective factor to success of irrigation schemes.

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Hasan DEĞİRMENCİ, Çağatay TANRIVERDİ, Fırat ARSLAN, Engin GÖNEN 2017, BENCHMARKING PERFORMANCE OF LARGE SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEMES WITH COMPARATIVE INDICATORS IN TURKEY. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 87-92.

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BIOACUMULATION AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF LEMNA MINUTA KUNTH AND LEMNA VALDIVIANA PHIL. IN BULGARIAN WATER RESERVOIRS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Katya VELICHKOVA, Ivaylo SIRAKOV, Elica VALKOVA, Stefka STOYANOVA, Gergana KOSTADINOVA

Lemna sp. have an important role indifferent aspect of aquatic ecosystems serving as a food source, by providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, changing water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals.The aim of present study was to investigate a new found species of Lemna in Bulgarian water reservoirs regarding their protein content and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Two water bodies located on the territory of South East Bulgaria –Tvardica Dam Lake with growing L. minuta and Nikolaevo fishpond with growing L. valdiviana were studied. Crude protein, lipid, ash contentin two species of Lemna were analysed. The heavy metal in water andaquatic plants was determined on an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) "A Analyst 800" - Perkin Elmer. The highest quantity of protein was measured in L. minuta (26.42%), which was 8.71% more compared to L. valdiviana (24.12). The concentrations of metals in the L. minuta and L. valdiviana followed a downward trend: Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The series of bioaccumulation is in descending order: Mn>Fe>Cu>Zn>Cr> Cd>Pb>Ni for L. minuta, and Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb>Cr>Ni for L. valdiviana.

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Katya VELICHKOVA, Ivaylo SIRAKOV, Elica VALKOVA, Stefka STOYANOVA, Gergana KOSTADINOVA 2017, BIOACUMULATION AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF LEMNA MINUTA KUNTH AND LEMNA VALDIVIANA PHIL. IN BULGARIAN WATER RESERVOIRS. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 104-107.

BRIQUETTING OF ROSE OIL PROCESSING WASTES WITH TWO DIFFERENT DIES USING HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Kamil EKINCI, Oral ERTUĞRUL, Haşmet Emre AKMAN, Murat MEMICI, Davut AKBOLAT

Rose oil processing wastes (ROPW) resulted from water distillation process from petals of R. damascena Mill, which is a by-product of rose oil producing industry leads to environmental problems such as odor and visual pollution. Since these wastes are rich in organic matter, it could be considered as a briquetting material to produce bioenergy. A hydraulic press was used for briquetting process in this study. Two different hexagonal dies with the height of 150 mm were used. No binding material was mixed with ROPW. The resultant briquettes were full hexagonal briquettes with the height of 100 mm and the outer diameter of 60 mm and hollow-core hexagonal briquettes with the height of 100 mm and the outer diameter of 80 mm with 20 mm inner diameter of central hole were produced. All briquettes were stored under ambient conditions for 7 days before testing. Shattering resistance, abrasive resistance, air humidity resistance, water intake resistance tests, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and flue gas emissions (CO2, CO, SO2, and NOX) were performed. The results were discussed in the paper.

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Kamil EKINCI, Oral ERTUÄžRUL, HaÅŸmet Emre AKMAN, Murat MEMICI, Davut AKBOLAT 2017, BRIQUETTING OF ROSE OIL PROCESSING WASTES WITH TWO DIFFERENT DIES USING HYDRAULIC PRESS MACHINE. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 1-6.

COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND TWO TYPES OF SUBSTRATES IN AN EXPERIMENTAL AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATION SYSTEM

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Ivaylo SIRAKOV, Katya VELICHKOVA, Stefka STOYANOVA, Desislava SLAVCHEVA-SIRAKOVA, Yordan STAYKOV

Two of the main parameters, which defined the cleaning capacity of cultivated plants and productivity of aquaponic systems, are the type of hydroponic compartment and plant’s growing media. The aim of current research was to compare the cleaning capacity and plant’s productivity of media bed and raft hydroponic sections as a part of a model aquaponic recirculation system. The impact of different plant growing mediums (cotton wool and rockwool) on lettuce yields was also retraced. For the purpose of this research two types of hydroponic sections (media bed and deep water sections) were constructed and integrated into an existing recirculation aquaculture system. For the trial 36 lettuce seedlings were used. Half of the plants were transferred to cotton wool and the other half of the lettuce plants were transferred to rockwool (Grodan®) substrates and afterwards all plants were placed in hydroponic pots. Eighteen lettuce seedlings (half planted on cotton wool and the other half on rockwool (Grodan®) substrate) were planted on the hydroponic section filled with lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) and the other eighteen plants (half planted on cotton wool and the other half on rockwool (Grodan®) substrate) were planted on the floating raft hydroponic section.The hydrochemical parameters were measured during the trial. At the end and middle of the trial the fresh weight of lettuce plants was measured.A better removal capacity in ammonium, nitrate and ortho-phospahte were observed in the LECA section compared with the cleaning capacity in the raft section as a part of experimental aquaponic system. The raft technology showed better plant productivity compared with the one found for the LECA bed technology. The productivity of lettuce plants is highly dependent on the type of plant growing medium, when they are cultivated in the floating raft technology.

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Ivaylo SIRAKOV, Katya VELICHKOVA, Stefka STOYANOVA, Desislava SLAVCHEVA-SIRAKOVA, Yordan STAYKOV 2017, COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND TWO TYPES OF SUBSTRATES IN AN EXPERIMENTAL AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 98-103.

COMPARISON OF THE HEATING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF THE GREENHOUSES IN THE TIGRIS BASIN WITH ANTALYA

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Burak SALTUK, Nazire MIKAIL, Atilgan ATILGAN, Yusuf AYDIN

The rapid growth of the world population also increases the amount of food needed for the human being`s life. Therefore, applications that increase productivity and through which production can be made throughout the year in plant production come to the forefront in the world. In this context, one of the most important activities is greenhouse cultivation through which production can be made throughout the year by keeping climate conditions under control. Greenhouses are climate-controlled plant production structures in which indoor environment conditions can be controlled and can be kept in accordance with growing conditions. Heating must be performed during the winter period in greenhouses if it is desired to make production throughout the year. In Turkey, almost all of greenhouse production is performed in the Mediterranean region, and the production areas are situated in a relatively limited area in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. In this study, 10-year climate data (Maximum, Minimum and Average Temperature, Humidity, Sunshine Duration and Amounts) of 5 provinces (Diyarbakir, Mardin, Siirt, Batman and Sirnak) in the Tigris basin were achieved by considering the climatic conditions and production capacity of Antalya province, which has the most production areas in Turkey. According to the results obtained, the average minimum temperature for each month showed a statistically significant difference according to the provinces (p<0.01). Consequently, while the highest heating load was 1852.836 W/m2 for a greenhouse of 576 m2 for Antalya province in January during which heating requirement is the maximum, 3887.13 W/m2 and 5615 W/m2 heating load differences were obtained from Mardin and Diyarbakir provinces, respectively.

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Burak SALTUK, Nazire MIKAIL, Atilgan ATILGAN, Yusuf AYDIN 2017, COMPARISON OF THE HEATING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF THE GREENHOUSES IN THE TIGRIS BASIN WITH ANTALYA. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 65-70.

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COMPOSTING OF OPIUM POPPY PROCESSING SOLID WASTE WITH POULTRY MANURE: EFFECTS OF AIRFLOW RATE ON COMPOSTING LOSSES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Barbaros S. KUMBUL, Kamil EKINCI, Ismail TOSUN

In this study, composting of opium poppy processing solid waste with poultry manure and rough sawdust with C/N ratio of 25 (65% opium poppy processing solid waste, 14% poultry manure, and 21% sawdust, dry basis) was conducted using fifteen-identical cylindrical stainless steel reactors, each of which has an effective volume of 100 L. The moisture content of initial mixture was 66%. Five aeration rates (aeration rates executed under set point temperature, Qmin,= 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 m3/h) were applied with fan on/off time (min) of 5/25, 7.5/25, and 10/25. The experiment lasted for 7.79 days. In the experiment, the temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, moisture, organic matter, oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, total carbon and nitrogen contents were monitored. Dry matter loss, organic matter loss, carbon loss, and nitrogen loss were expressed as functions of Qmin and on/off times. Results showed that the highest losses occurred at the aeration rate of Qmin=1.5 m3/h. Losses as functions of aeration rate with on/off time showed that the highest losses existed at the aeration rate of Qmin=1.5 m3/h with on/off time (min) of 7.5/25-10.0/25.

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Barbaros S. KUMBUL, Kamil EKINCI, Ismail TOSUN 2017, COMPOSTING OF OPIUM POPPY PROCESSING SOLID WASTE WITH POULTRY MANURE: EFFECTS OF AIRFLOW RATE ON COMPOSTING LOSSES. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 23-30.

CONSIDERATIONS OVER CAUSES OF DESERTIFICATION IN BRAILA COUNTY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Catalina BORDUN (FLOREA-GABRIAN), Sorin Mihai CIMPEANU

Land reclamation engineering technologies habe been succesfully applied to improve crop quality and compensate the natural inconspicuous and counterproductive factors for a long and radical evolution of the agricultural production. Still, an incorrect use of these technologies, inadequate agricultural exploitation and alcaline to salty soils, led to profound ecosystem degradation, up to desertification. It is the case of some specific areas in Braila county, Romania, which degraded from agricultural to desertified land. The paper aims to track the transformation of these areas over a 35 years period and to conclude whether stakeholders should follow the natural path and find a way to work along with the raw environment. The analisys passes in review the transformations of Braila plain from 1974 to 2010, based on graphic analysis of arridity index, Lang pluviometric index and Gaussen obrothermic diagram, corroborated with pedologic conditions, soil quality and climate factors variation, leading to the desertification of more than 2000 hectars, classified nowdays with the IV-th and V-th fertility grade. Administrative measures have been proposed by the local authorities but not applied on the site, due to high costs of implementation and the question to be answer is whether an eco management and economic solutions would better generate profitable use of these desertified soils.

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Catalina BORDUN (FLOREA-GABRIAN), Sorin Mihai CIMPEANU 2017, CONSIDERATIONS OVER CAUSES OF DESERTIFICATION IN BRAILA COUNTY. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 114-119.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PILOT SCALE AERATED STATIC PILE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V
Written by Kamil EKINCI, Ismail TOSUN, Seyit Ahmet INAN, Murat MEMICI, Barbaros S. KUMBUL

The amount of agricultural and industrial wastes is increasing due to increase in industrial and agricultural activities in the world. Therefore, sustainable management of wastes, which is a major challenge being faced by both agricultural and industrial sectors in the world, is required. Composting, which is one of the valorization methods used to accelerate decomposition and stabilization of organic wastes, is well known and getting widespread. This study covers design and instrumentation of a pilot scale aerated static pile composting systems based on engineering principles. With this system, basic scientific data (decomposition rates of composting materials, optimum temperature and moisture values) which are required for construction of large-scale composting facilities and operation of composting process will be obtained. The system consists of (1) aeration system, (2) control, data acquisition and recording unit, and (3) measurement system (temperature, instant CO2/O2 concentrations, airflow, and energy consumption by aeration). In this study, each components of this system will be introduced. This study has been conducted under the program of 1007 of the scientific and technological research council of Turkey.

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Kamil EKINCI, Ismail TOSUN, Seyit Ahmet INAN, Murat MEMICI, Barbaros S. KUMBUL 2017, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PILOT SCALE AERATED STATIC PILE COMPOSTING SYSTEMS. Scientific Papers. Series E. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering, Vol. V, Print ISSN 2285-6064, 7-12.


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